## Let's review the Quantum Principals each of which is applicable to Quantum Computation

### 1. **Superposition**

Superposition is the principle that a quantum system can exist in multiple states simultaneously. For example, an electron can be in a superposition of spinning both "up" and "down" at the same time, until it is measured, at which point it collapses to one definite state. This is likely one of the most common quantum principals.

### 2. **Entanglement**

Quantum entanglement occurs when two or more particles become linked in such a way that the state of one particle instantly influences the state of another, no matter how far apart they are. Measuring one entangled particle determines the state of the other instantly, a phenomenon that Einstein famously referred to as "spooky action at a distance."

### 3. **Wave-Particle Duality**

Quantum objects, like photons and electrons, exhibit both particle-like and wave-like behavior depending on how they are observed. This duality is demonstrated in experiments like the double-slit experiment, where particles can create an interference pattern typical of waves when not directly observed, but behave like particles when observed.

### 4. **Quantum Superposition & Measurement (Collapse)**

In quantum mechanics, the act of measuring a system forces it to "collapse" from a superposition of multiple states into one definite state. Before measurement, the system exists in a probability distribution of all possible outcomes; after measurement, it picks one.

### 5. **Quantum Tunneling**

Quantum tunneling is a phenomenon where particles can pass through a barrier they seemingly shouldnâ€™t be able to, based on classical physics. In quantum mechanics, there's a non-zero probability that a particle can "tunnel" through barriers due to the uncertainty of its position and energy.

### 6. **Uncertainty Principle**

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that itâ€™s impossible to precisely know both the position and momentum of a particle at the same time. The more accurately you know one property, the less accurately you can know the other. This is not due to experimental limitations but a fundamental property of quantum systems.

### 7. **Quantum Decoherence**

As discussed, quantum decoherence is the process by which a quantum system loses its quantum superposition due to interaction with its environment. It causes the system to behave classically, even though it technically still follows quantum rules.

### 8. **Quantum States and Qubits**

In quantum computing, a qubit is the basic unit of information. Unlike a classical bit, which can be either 0 or 1, a qubit can exist in a superposition of both 0 and 1, enabling quantum computers to perform many calculations simultaneously.

Together, these principles define the strange and counterintuitive behavior of particles in the quantum realm, fundamentally different from classical physics.

## Comments